Diamondbacks Vice President and General Manager Kevin Towers made the announcement via press release Thursday.
With Paul Goldschmidt locked in as the starting first baseman, veteran Eric Chavez's ability to back him up on days off and Prado's versatility, Anderson was the odd man out in the Diamondbacks' latest set of roster moves.
The 25-year-old came to Arizona, along with shortstop Didi Gregorius, last December via a three-team trade that landed starting pitcher Trevor Bauer in Cleveland and outfielder Shin-Soo Choo in Cincinnati.
In 2012 Anderson hit .250 (99-for-396) with 27 doubles, 9 home runs and 59 RBI in 111 games with Triple-A Pawtucket (Red Sox) and Triple-A Columbus (Indians) in 2012. He also appeared in 6 games with Boston, going 1-for-8 (.125).